- Typifying Examples:“CivilRights.org” In 2008 2 youths aged 15 and 13 were riding in a car driven by their football coach. Newark police stopped their car in the road and ordered all three out and held them at gunpoint while the car was searched. The football Coach James stated that the search violated his rights, the police officer stated that they “had no rights” and police officers “had no rules”. The search continued and no contraband was found, only football equipment.
- Name: African American Discriminaton in Law enforcement
- Statistics: From “American Progress”
1. While people of color make up about 30 percent of the United States’ population, they account for 60 percent of those imprisoned.
2. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, one in three black men can expect to go to prison in their lifetime.
3. Students of color face harsher punishments in school than their white peers, leading to a higher number of youth of color incarcerated.
4. According to recent data by the Department of Education, African American students are arrested far more often than their white classmates.
5. African American youth have higher rates of juvenile incarceration and are more likely to be sentenced to adult prison.
6. Once convicted, black offenders receive longer sentences compared to white offenders.
7. Voter laws that prohibit people with felony convictions to vote disproportionately impact men of color.
8. Studies have shown that people of color face disparities in wage trajectory following release from prison.
2. Additional Claims
Worsening Problem: In 2015, according to the findings of a “Gaurdian Study” that recorded a final tally of 1,134 deaths at the hands of law enforcement officers this year.
Familiar Type of Problem: This problem is very familar to indivuals nowadays because it is always on the news and it is one topic that is being talked about. “MSNBC”
Kinds of People Affected: Young black men were nine times more likely than other Americans to be killed by police officers in 2015. Black male teens are 21 more times likely to be killed by cops than white ones. (“Think Progress”)
Range of people affected: Young Black males. 18-34 *(“Outside The Beltway”)
Challenge to Traditional Interpretations: Police brutalities used to be servere beatings around the Civil Rights Movement Era and today it seems as though police officers are shooting to kill. “Prezi” gives a great example of police brutalities during the Civil Rights Movement.
1.The “Amadou Diallo Case” was about a young 22 year old West African man who was shot at 41 times by four police officers who were investigating a rape pattern in the area in 1999. The officers mistaken him for someone else as well as mistaken him for having a firearm.The officers who shot him were acquitted of all charges on Feb.25,2000. It took just a few seconds for the killing to transpire and this is important because police officers have to make decisions in a matter of seconds because what they are taught in training. Although police officers having to make such swift decisons can be positive, it can also have a negative affect. For instance the Amadou Diallo case is a perfect example of a negative affect. They had no idea whether he was pulling a gun out of his pocket or not; however, they had just seconds to make an assumption. Below is a video showing a few instances when officers had to make split-second decisions to shoot or not shoot:
2.The “Implicit Test” reveals attitudes and beliefs that people may be unwilling or unable to report. The IAT also may show that you have an implicit attitude that you did not know about. For example, you may believe that women and men should be equally associated with science, but your automatic associations could show that you associate men with science more than you associate women with science. When we are making decisions about “good” and “bad” people, we tend to associate different type of people with those two phrases based on our experience. These results may explain why people “trust their gut” in situations because for so long all a person knows is what they are around. If a person grew up with seeing alor of Caucasians with guns then most likley they will associate (maybe knowingly and unknowingly) them with guns more than another race.
Team Results on IAT: Ajahna: My results for Race was that I moderately prefer African Americans over European Americans and for Weapons there was little or no association between Black American and White American with Harmless Objects and Weapons. However, I do not agree with my Race results because I can care less about what race you are;anyone could be harmful or harmless. Also it stated that if you clicked a button slower or faster then that’s how they measured it. I think this is not a great way to measure it because they switched the location of the races and words and when you are used to the placement of the words it’s harder to learn a new location and still go “as fast as you can”. Which is another thing also. The study states over and over again to go “as fast as you can” and that can affect individual’s results because they feel rushed or they are just clicking to get through it. Therefore, I believe this test is not great determining factor as far as accuracy. The article “In Bias, Shades of Gray” also explains its inaccuracy.
Taylor: My results showed that I preferred European Americans over African Americans, and little to no association between Black American and White American with Harmless Objects and Weapons. The Huffington Post has an article raising the question “Are Blacks a criminal race?” This article shows statistics on how the Juvenile Justice system treats blacks differently. Another article from The Washington Post shows the difference in how blacks and whites are killed by guns. Sometimes we associate blacks with bad things such as crime when in actuality the issue comes from some white officers.
Monteleto: My results showed that I preferred European Americans over African Americans. It also showed that I associate European American and African Americans slightly with harmful weapons. This test shows your unconscious attitudes and associations. Some studies show that 70% percent of people prefer white Americans over black Americans.
3.The New York’s Stop & Frisk Policy is a practice of the New York Police Department in which police officers stop and question a pedestrian, then frisk them for weapons and other contraband.The goal of the policy was to catch those on the street who had illegal contraband and catch them in the act. The NYCLU Data showed that between the years, African Americans and Hispanics were stopped more times than Whites (African Americans exceeding the rest). The results can be understood based on the IAT test is by not automatically assuming they are targeting African Americans but by making the conclusion that those officers probably grew up associating African Americans with crime. Therefore, they will stop an African American then if they find contraband, they will continue. Every time they find contraband on an African American it strengthens their theory of “African Americans are associated more with crime”. “Shira Scheindlin, a U.S. District Court judge for the Southern District of New York, has ruled that New York City’s “stop and frisk” policy violates the Fourteenth Amendment’s promise of equal protection, as black and Hispanic people are subject to stops and searches at a higher rate than whites”. According to the New York Civil Liberties Union, 97,296 stops were conducted in 2002. That’s less than a fifth of the number of stops conducted in 2012